The Relationship Between Food Security and Dietary Patterns Status with COVID-19 in Northeastern Iran: Protocol for a Case-Control Study

Document Type : Study Protocol


1 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran

3 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Clinical Research Development Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft , Iran; Student Research Committee, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran

5 Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Background: Food insecurity is described as the inability or uncertainty of having enough food to live an active and healthy life regularly. Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious viral infection that is associated with a high mortality rate due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and/or severe pneumonia.
Aim: The current research aims to compare food security and dietary patterns with the possibility of developing COVID-19 symptoms in recently improved patients and non-infected cases.
Methods: This case-control study will be conducted on the men and women aged 20-60 years improved from COVID-19 infection. The cases (n=124) and controls (n=124) were selected according to the eligibility criteria, including recently improved COVID-19 according to the positive COVID-19 PCR test. The groups are matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). The assessments will include anthropometric measurements and general demographic, USDA 18-item food security (18item-FSSM), and 147-item food frequency (FFQ) questionnaires.
Results: This study received approval from the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Participation is free, and a patient can withdraw at whatever point the person feels they are unable to continue. There is no bar to receiving the other health care services of the center.
Conclusion: This study would be the first assessment of the relationship between food security and dietary patterns status with COVID-19 disease. It may help planners and policymakers manage food insecurity and unhealthy dietary patterns and later increase the immune system and decrease the incidence of COVID-19.


Editor: SAA. Safavi-Naini (Conflict of interest: None)
Reviewers:  N. Bineshfar (Conflict of Interest: None), M. Ilaghi (Conflict of Intrest: None)

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